HMONG-RELATED RESEARCH AND LITERATURE: PAST, PRESENT AND
FUTURE DIRECTIONS

by Mark E. Pfeifer, PhD, Director, Hmong Resource Center, Saint Paul, MN,
Editor, Hmong Studies Journal

This paper was originally presented at the Hmong National Conference held in Milwaukee, April 15,
2002. The paper was revised January 11, 2005.


(Note: Readers of this article may also wish to look at Nicholas Tapp's 2004 article "The State of
Hmong Studies (An Essay on Bibliography). In Tapp, N., Michaud, J., Culas, C., and Lee, G.Y. (Editors).
Hmong/Miao in Asia. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books and University of Washington Press, pp. 3-
38 for an overview of Hmong Studies research in Asia and Mark E. Pfeifer's article "The State of
Hmong-American Studies" for an overview of recent work in Hmong-American Studies online at http:
//hmongstudies.learnabouthmong.org/Hmong-American%20Studies.pdf)


A. DESCRIPTION OF DATA SOURCES UTILIZED/LIMITATIONS

For the purposes of this project, references to Hmong-related works were compiled from several
sources. These included the 3 Hmong bibliographies published by the University of Minnesota that
effectively track work up until 1995; the Web of Science’s academic reference citation databases
related to works in the health sciences, social sciences and humanities, the Hmong Studies Journal’s
online bibliographies, as well as the University of Michigan’s microfilm databases of published
dissertations and theses in North American universities.

There are several limitations associated with using these data sources. First, most of the works
identified are in the English or French language. Most Chinese, Thai, Lao and Hmong language works
are not included in these indexes. In addition, these sources are strongly weighted toward academic
works. Self-published works or reports put out by non-profit organizations are typically not disseminated
widely enough to make it into these indexes. In addition, to narrow things down, I only included
academic articles, books, and reports in my analysis but not Hmong-related newspaper articles (of
which there have been a couple thousand in the past 25 years). Furthermore, the academic works
included are more likely to be PhD Dissertations than MA Theses. Most PhD Dissertations published in
North America make it into the University of Michigan microfilm collection while many MA works do not.
Thus, I believe these sources provide a good overview of the type of research and literature published
about Hmong-related topics in the English language but these sources certainly do not by any means
capture all of the Hmong-related works that have been produced by researchers and writers. It also
should be noted that studies of Miao in China sometimes but do not always refer to Hmong. Hmong are
one of at least four major ethnic groups classified as Miao in China. Others groups include the Kho
Xiong, the Hmu and the A Hmao.

B. THE EARLIEST HMONG-RELATED WORKS

The earliest work published in the West about the Miao or a Hmong-related group that I have been able
to find was a French language article by Joseph Amiot published in 1778. The article discussed
Christian missionary work with a Miao group in China. A half century later, in the 1830s and 1840s, a
small but growing literature by Western-based writers began to develop. Many of these works consisted
of articles with similar titles and themes. In 1831, an unlisted author published “Observations on the
Miao-Tsze Mountaineers” in an English-language journal focusing on research in China.

In 1845, an article by W.S. Williams was published in the research journal Chinese Repository with the
rather long-winded title: “Notices of the Miao-Tsze or Aboriginal Tribes, Inhabitating Various Highlands
in the Southern and Western Provinces of China Proper.” A few decades later in 1867, two articles
published by an author using the one word name of Deka in the journal Notes and Queries on China and
Japan, investigated whether a group of Miao in China had a written language.

An analysis of Western-based Hmong-related works published in the 19th century and the first half of the
20th century, shows that the themes in these earliest efforts set the tone for most of the western-based
writing about the Hmong until at least the late 1950s. Most studies focused on attempting to describe
the culture and lifestyles of the Hmong and other Miao groups residing in China and Southeast Asia.
Many of these works paid special attention to elements of the culture deemed exotic for western
academic audiences. The majority of these research studies focused on groups classified as Miao in
China.

Many but certainly not all of the cultural-oriented studies used the ethnographic methods and essentialist
tone common in anthropology at the time. Observed Social and Cultural Characteristics and character
traits were often generalized to entire subgroups of Hmong and other groups of Miao. Examples of this
type of writing may be found in Beauclair’s edited (1970) compilation Tribal Cultures of Southwest
China, a work that includes many articles that were actually composed decades earlier. The following
are some quotes from authors in this work:

“As to the Miao, their independent spirit has often been stressed. Accounts of French officers highly
praise the Miao’s character, their frankness and honesty, their vigor and reliability.” (p.18)

Another passage reads: “Their disposition and this is a typical Miao trait, is cheerful and gay, and they
are friendly and hospitable, and have a good sense of humour. If they are justly treated, they certainly will
not cause any trouble.” (p. 78)

A passage among the observed Hmong and Miao skills in the Arts states: “The Miao are endowed with
an artistic sense. With their embroidery, batik, and weaving, they display an admirable taste and sense
of colour. Among the educated Miao a talent for drawing manifests itself. Furthermore, the Miao are
remarkably musical.”

As one final example from this work, a section of a chapter titled: “Mentality of the Miao” reads: “The
Miao’s love of freedom and independence is stressed by all observers. It is not surprising that the
warlike Miao are at the same time inteprid hunters. (A researcher) who has lived many years in close
contact with the Miao in Indochina, characterizes them as being proud, loving, adventurous, imbued by a
warlike spirit and possessing the instinct of hunters.” (p.113)

Titles of Hmong and other Miao group-related studies published in the first half of the 20th century, give
a sense of the author’s focus on descriptions of observed culture and lifestyles. The article “Social Life
of the Miao Tsi” was published in 1899 in the journal of the Royal Asiatic Society; a work titled “The
Hainanese Miao” focusing on Hmong in one southern province of China was published by the same
journal in 1921, one of the earlier works about Hmong in Thailand, titled simply “The White Meo” was
published in 1923 by the Journal of the Siam Society.

Beginning around the 1920s, several prolific ethnographic researchers began publishing a series of
Hmong-related works. Among these authors was David Crockett Graham. Graham published numerous
studies between the 1920s and 1950s. One of the first of these was titled: “Critical Note: The Chuan
Miao of West China” published in the Journal of Religion in 1926. Other Graham studies published
between the 1930s and the mid-1950s included: “The Customs of the Chuan Miao,” “The Ceremonies
of the Chuan Miao”, “The Religion of the Chuan Miao”, and “Songs and Stories of the Chuan Miao.”

Other prolific researchers who wrote about the Hmong and other Miao groups in the first half of the 20th
century included William Hudspeth who wrote extensively about his observations among the Flowery
Miao and other groups in Southwest China and F.M. Savina, best known for his French-language
classic History des Miao which includes a large pullout map with a dotted line tracing what he believed
to be the geographic origins of the Hmong people in present-day Iraq as a lost tribe of Israel. Savina
also published a French-Hmong dictionary and articles about the Hmong and other Miao languages and
Hmong/Miao rebellions in China.

C. HMONG-RELATED WORKS 1950-1975


By the early 1950s, a new generation of Western-based scholars was publishing extensive research
derived from ethnographic fieldwork with Hmong populations in China and Southeast Asia. At this time,
Western-based Hmong research became a bit less focused on generalistic descriptive studies of
culture and lifestyles of Hmong and other Miao subgroups as it shifted to somewhat more empirically
based studies of particular topics, particularly the dialects of the Hmong language in different regions.

In the early 1950s, G. Linwood Barney and William A. Smalley began publishing numerous articles and
monographs on the Hmong language based on research conducted in Thailand. Barney and Smalley
were among the important contributors to the development of the romanized Hmong script. Christian
Missionary Alliance Church Missionaries, Barney and Smalley published several other works pertaining
to their mission work with the Hmong. In 1957, Barney completed his M.A. Thesis at the University of
Minnesota titled: “Christianity: Innovation in Meo Culture.” In 1956, William Smalley published a similarly
themed article: “The Gospel and the Cultures of Laos” in the journal Practical Anthropology. Smalley
published several additional works about the development of the romanized Hmong script in the 1960s.

Another prolific researcher of the same era was Yin-Fu Ruey. Ruey’s work in China in some ways
represented a continuation of earlier efforts to chronicle Miao cultural characteristics using the
descriptive ethnographic methods of cultural anthropology. Ruey wrote articles discussing the marriage
and mortuary customs, the family system, and other observed cultural characteristics of a subgroup of
Miao in Szechuan Province known as the Magpie Miao.

In the late 1960s and 1970s, an analysis shows English and French language research about the
Hmong in Thailand and Laos became more common and studies of Hmong and other groups of Miao in
China far less so. This shift to research in Southeast Asia reflected the increased attention given to
Hmong in the region due to their role in the Vietnam War at the time.

Several researchers began publishing comprehensive ethnographic analyses of Hmong culture and
village life during this time period. Other works examined the social status and socioeconomic
incorporation of the Hmong minority in Laos and Thailand. These studies were less encumbered by the
tendency of the researcher to focus on the Hmong culture and lifestyle as exotic forms to be dissected
for an academic audience. These analyses were also less likely to make essentialist generalizations
about groups of Hmong people and their cultural characteristics. Among the prolific Western-based
researchers in this time period were Jacque Lemoine whose works included his seminal study of the
Hmong culture and social structure and economy in a village located in Laos; Thomas Lyman who
published numerous works related to the Hmong language, culture and socioeconomy in Laos and
Thailand and William Geddes who published the seminal ethnographic study – Migrants of the
Mountains: The Cultural Ecology of the Blue Miao (Hmong Njua) of Thailand in 1976.

D. HMONG-RELATED WORKS AFTER 1975

The volume of Hmong-related work began increasing greatly in the late 1970s in direct correspondence
to the increased interest in the United States and other Western countries following the arrival of the first
Hmong refugees after 1976. According to my analysis, the number of published works related to the
Hmong never exceeded 10 in a given year until 1969 which in itself reflected increased interest and
awareness at the height of the Vietnam War).

The first time the number of Hmong-related published works in a given year exceeded 20 was in 1979,
when 27 works were published according to my analysis. A few years later, in 1982, almost 60 Hmong-
related works were published according to my data, reflecting the strong academic and service
professional interest during this time period which of course stemmed from the Hmong refugees moving
to certain areas of the United States at this time.

The number of Hmong-related works published in a given year exceeded 70 for the first time in 1990
and exceeded 70 every year through the mid-1990s. My analysis actually shows a small decrease in the
number of Hmong-related books and journal articles published each year since 1997. These observed
decreases probably reflect in part the lag time needed for Hmong-related graduate work and academic
articles to become widely disseminated.

What have Western-based writers been writing about the Hmong since 1980? Well, not surprisingly in
the early 1980s, many of the works focused on refugee resettlement issues. My data show that this trend
continued until the mid-1980s. Many of the works in the 1980-1986 time period were published by a
team of researchers at the University of Minnesota who put out two seminal compilations of studies
pertaining to Hmong resettlement and adaptation in Western countries: The Hmong in the West:
Observations and Reports published in 1982 and The Hmong in Transition in 1986.

In the early 1980s, the number of works being published related to physical and mental health issues
among Hmong populations, particularly in the United States, greatly increased. This reflected the early
tensions in the interactions between Hmong refugees and the mainstream American medical system.
One issue that especially occupied researchers in the 1980s were the sudden deaths of Hmong
refugees while sleeping. Throughout the 1980s, increased work was also published related to various
aspects of Hmong culture including music, folktales, embroidery, storycloths, and traditional religion
reflecting increased scholarly and public awareness and interest in these topics due to the growing
Hmong presence in certain parts of the United States and other Western countries.

The number of studies of Hmong communities in Asia also increased a bit starting in the late 1980s,
with an especially pronounced amount of renewed scholarship by Western-based writers on topics
pertaining to Hmong populations in China. Western Scholars had not written extensively about the
Hmong in China since the 1950s when most work had shifted to Hmong in Laos and Thailand.

Looking at Hmong-related literature published since the late 1980s, some clear themes emerge. The
first children’s books intended for Hmong children began appearing in the late 1980s. The numbers of
children’s books published in Hmong and English or based on a Hmong theme such as a folktale
continued to increase throughout the 1990s and many children’s books have been published in the past
5 years or so. A large number of these have been editions of popular American children’s story
published in both English and White and Green Hmong by the Minnesota Humanities Commission’s
Motheread/Fatheread Program in the past 2 years.

The bulk of the Hmong-related works published since the mid-1980s have dealt with issues of
adaptation in Western societies. General trends in the concerns of these studies have changed a bit
over time. As I have noted, many of the works published up until the mid-1980s focused upon general
resettlement issues Hmong were confronting in the new communities where they were residing. Later in
the 1980s, the topics of adaptation-oriented studies shifted to two major subgroups. Studies of Hmong
literacy and educational adaptation and physical and mental health issues have dominated graduate
work and published journal articles since the mid-1980s.

Smaller but growing numbers of studies have focused on such issues as race relations and Hmong
interactions with the criminal justice system; roles of Hmong men and women and family issues: politics
in the Hmong community; oral histories of Hmong families; and socioeconomic incorporation and
residential geography of Hmong populations.

Throughout the 1990s, especially in the first half of the decade, there was also a growing literature being
produced that documented the Hmong role in the War in Laos.
Also importantly, in the past 5 years or so, there has also been an emergence of a small but growing
Hmong-themed fiction literature as well as the literary journal work produced by Hmong-origin writers.

Thus, to summarize the substantive content of Hmong-related works; while still dominated by research
studies of education and health issues, the range of substantive content found in published works has
expanded significantly in scope since the early 1990s.

E. THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF HMONG-ORIGIN AUTHORS

One important trend that was quite apparent in my data is the increasing amount of material being
produced and made available by Hmong-origin authors in the past decade or so. In this part of my
paper, I would like to discuss the growth of English and French language works by Hmong-origin
authors over the past 3 decades.

One of the earliest works by a Hmong author that made it to the Western world was printed in 1972. It
was titled: The Hmoob Ways of Old/How We Must Study. It was authored by Chua Va Lo and printed by
U.S.A.I.D. The earliest Hmong-authored work that was formally published and distributed in the West
was Yang Dao’s The Hmong of Laos in the Vanguard of Development printed in French by a Laos-
based published in 1975 and translated into an English edition by the same publisher in 1976.

In the late 1970s and early 1980s, a few works by Hmong authors began to appear as Hmong refugees
were resettled in the United States. These included such resettlement-related titled as English for
Hmong Students in Wisconsin: Practical Everyday Expressions written by T. Vang in 1979 and
published by the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction; The Hmong Culture and Educational
Background, an unpublished manuscript prepared by Toua Yang in 1980; Lao Hmong Medical Terms
prepared by T.F. Vang in 1980 for the Governor’s Center for Asian Assistance of the State of Illinois;
and a 1980 collaboration between M. Yang and two non-Hmong authors: Hmong-English Phrasebook
for Americans published by the Saint Paul Public Schools.

Also in the early 1980s, a few Hmong-origin authors began putting out a substantive body of research-
related work. The two most prolific of these authors were Yang Dao and Gary Yia Lee. Gary Yia Lee’s
PhD Dissertation: “The Effects of Development Measures on the Socio-Economy of the White Hmong”
was completed at the University of Sydney in Australia in 1981. In 1982, Gary Yia Lee authored
“National Minority Policies and the Hmong” which appeared in an edited column of papers pertaining to
political and social conditions in Laos. Also in 1982, Yang Dao’s article “Why Did the Hmong Leave
Laos?” appeared in one of the seminal academic works of the early resettlement era – The Hmong in
the West: Observations and Reports, edited by Bruce Downing and Douglas Olney at the University of
Minnesota.

Through the mid-1980s, Hmong-origin authors wrote or co-authored several resettlement adaptation-
oriented studies. Among these were several works T.F. Vang co-authored with Joseph Westermeyer at
the University of Minnesota related to mental health and chemical dependency issues. The two most
prolific Hmong-origin scholars, Yang Dao and Gary Yia Lee also authored several additional articles
related to Hmong culture and Hmong incorporation in the societies of Laos and Thailand.

In the late 1980s, works by a new generation of Hmong scholars began appearing as Hmong-origin
students started earning graduate degrees from North American universities. In 1988, J.V.N. Vangay
completed a Master’s Thesis at California State University, Stanislaus, titled: “Hmong Parents: Cultural
Attitudes and the Sex-Ratio Imbalance Of Hmong Merced High School Graduates.” A year later, in
1989, V.C. Mouanoutoua completed an MA thesis at California State University, Fresno related to the
validity and reliability of an adapted Hmong language version of the Beck Depression Inventory. In 1990,
P.K. Yang completed an MA Thesis titled “Hmong Involvement in Wars in Laos Before and After 1975 at
Mankato State University in Minnesota and the same year, S.M. Vang finished an MA Thesis at UW-
Stout focusing on the relationship between level of family responsibilities and Hmong student
performance at a vocational college. These scholars and their works served as pioneers for growing
numbers of Hmong-origin students who completed graduates theses and dissertations throughout the
1990s at many of these same American universities.

Looking at Hmong-related graduate dissertations and theses written by Hmong-origin authors since the
late 1980s, it is interesting to observe that the bulk of the works have been completed at just a few
institutions. By far the leader in this regard is the University of Wisconsin-Stout, where I was able to find
almost 30 M.A. theses authored by Hmong-origin students on Hmong-related topics between 1989 and
2004. The next largest number of theses and dissertations completed by Hmong origin authors was
apparent at California State University, Stanislaus followed by the University of San Francisco and
Mankato State University as well as the California State University, Fresno and the California School of
Professional Psychology.

It should be noted that these numbers represent only Hmong-related works completed by Hmong-origin
authors. However, I think the numbers clearly suggest a couple of trends. 1: ) Hmong origin students
started completing graduate level studies in the U.S. in growing numbers in the late 1980s and
throughout the 1990s. 2:) A substantial portion of these graduate theses were completed at very small
group of selected academic institutions located in areas of substantial Hmong settlement: Central and
Northern California, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. These works by Hmong-origin students investigated a
range of adaptation issues with a particular emphasis on the topics of mental health, family life, and
educational adaptation issues in regions of Hmong residential concentration.

When we look at the overall number of Hmong-related works by Hmong-origin authors we see a gradual
increase in annual volume from the single digits of 4 or 5 each year throughout the 1980s to double
digits (over 10) in just about every year throughout the 1990s into 2004.

F. FUTURE DIRECTIONS OF HMONG-RELATED WORKS

1. More works by Hmong-origin authors encompassing a variety of topics and subject matters

2. More works by Hmong-origin authors conducting research on Hmong culture and history in China and
Southeast Asia. Hmong scholars who grew in the West are attempting to make connections with their
roots in these countries.

3. Expanded Variety of Children’s Literature to include more books not only translated into the two major
Hmong dialects but also children’s books with a Hmong theme which are still few and far between (one
exception – The Story of the Turtle and Giant Hornbill written and illustrated by Hmong-origin writers and
artists last year

4. Indepth studies of Hmong demographics and socioeconomic trends in communities across the
United States from 2000 census data

5. Research on educational outcomes and acculturation (in terms of language use, test scores,
graduation rates of the first generation of Hmong born and raised in the United States). This 2nd
generation will be compared to the other immigrant children and youth born and raised in the United
States including Mexican, Vietnamese, and Hispanic groups as well as other racial minorities.

6. Works that examine the growing social, political and cultural complexity and diversity of the Hmong
community in the United States and that explore generational, gender, and religious differences in views
toward different issues. It is very misleading to make vast generalizations about a monolithic "Hmong
community." The new Hmong refugees come to the U.S. from Wat Thamkrabok in Thailand in 2004 and
2005 will add to the complexity of the community considerably.

7. Indepth examinations of local level racial attitudes toward Hmong and racial discrimination against
Hmong-Americans in the wake of the very negative and stereotyping media reporting of the tragic
incident in Northern Wisconsin in November 2004.

8. There is still a great need for a comprehensive and authoritative two-way Hmong-English/English
Hmong dictionary though I don’t know if there will be one anytime soon.



PROMINENT SCHOLARS OF HMONG AND MIAO-RELATED RESEARCH 1900-1950 (Partial List of
Publications)

David Crockett Graham

(1922-23). The Ch’uan Miao of Southern Szechuan. Journal of the West China Border Research
Society 1:56.

1926). Critical Note: The Chuan Miao of West China. Journal of Religion 6(3):302-307.

(1926-29). More Notes about the Chwan Miao. Journal of the West China Border Research Society 3:
112-113.

(1937) The Customs of the Ch’uan Miao. Journal of the West China Border Research Society 9:13-70.

(1937). The Ceremonies of the Ch’uan Miao. Journal of the West China Border Research Society 9:71-
119.

(1938). Vocabulary of the Ch'wan Miao. Journal of the West China Border Research Society 10:53-145.

(1939). Note on the Ch’wan Miao of West China. Man 171-2:174-175.

(1941). The Religion of the Ch’wan Miao. Review of Religion 5 (March): 276-209.

(1954). Songs and Stories of the Ch’uan Miao. Washington D.C.: The Smithsonian Institution,
publication no. 4139.

William Hudspeth

(1922). The Cult of the Door amongst the Miao in South-West China. Folk-Lore 33:406-410.

(1932). Among the Flowery Miao. Listener, Aug:265-266.

(1935). The Hwa Miao Language. Journal of the West China Border Research Society 7: 104-121.

(1937). Stone-gateway and the Flowery Miao. London: Cargate Press.

F.M. Savina

(1916). Dictionnaire miao-tseu-francais. Bulletin de l’Ecole Francaise d’Extreme-Orient 16(2).

(1924). Histoire des Miao. Hong Kong: Imprimerie de la Societe des Missions-Etrangeres.

(1924). Considerantion sur la revolt des Miao (1918-1921). Eveil economique indochine (August): 373.


PROMINENT SCHOLARS OF HMONG AND MIAO-RELATED RESEARCH 1950-1975 (Partial List of
Publications)

G. Linwood Barney and William A. Smalley

Barney, G. Linwood, and William A. Smalley (1952). Report of Conference on Problems in Meo
Phonemic Structure.

Barney, G. Linwood, and William A. Smalley (1953) (a). Report of Second Conference on Problems in
Meo Phonemic Structure.

Barney, G. Linwood, and William A. Smalley (1953) (b). Third Report on Meo: Orthography and
Grammer.

Smalley, William A. (1956). The Gospel and the Cultures of Laos. Practical Anthropology 3(3):47-57.

Barney, G. Linwood (1957) The Meo - - An Incipient Church. Practical Anthropology 4(2):31-50.

Barney, G. Linwood (1957) Christianity: Innovation in Meo Culture. Unpublished MA Thesis, University of
Minnesota. [378.7 M66 qOB2647]

Smalley, W.A. (1965). Hmong Language Notes. Unpublished.

Smalley, W.A. (1965). Notes on Hmong Script Development. Unpublished.

Yih-Fu Ruey

Ruey Yih-Fu (1954). On the Origin and Type of Kinship Terminology among the Miao Tribe in the
Region of the Sources of the Yungning River. Bulletin of the Department of Archaeology and
Anthropology, National Taiwan University 3:1-13 (in Chinese with English summary).

Ruey Yih-Fu (1955). Parent Child Identity Kinship Terminology. Bulletin of the Ethnological Society of
China 1:45-62 (in Chinese with English summary).

Ruey Yih-Fu (1958). Terminological Structure of the Miao Kinship System. Academia Sinica: Bulletin of
the Institute of History and Philology 29:613-639.

Ruey Yih-Fu (1960). The Magpie Miao of Southern Szechuan. In Social Structure in Southeast Asia, G.
Murdock, ed. pp. 143-155. Chicago: Quadrangle Books.

Ruey Yih-Fu (1962). The Miao: Their Origin and Southern Migration. In Second Biennial Conference
Proceedings. Taipei: International Association of Historians of Asia.

Ruey Yih-Fu, and T. K. Kuan (1962). Marriage and Mortuary Customs of the Magpie Miao of Southern
Szechuan, China. Academia Sinica: Institute of History and Philology, Monograph Series A no. 23.

Ruey Yih-Fu (1963) The Magpie Miao of Southern Szechuan and the Family System. Academia Sinica:
Bulletin of the Ethnological Institute 34:367.

Ruey Yih-Fu (1967). A Study of the Miao People. In Symposium on Historical, Archaeological and
Linguistic Studies, F. S. Drake, ed. pp. 49-58. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.



PROMINENT SCHOLARS OF HMONG-RELATED RESEARCH 1965-1975

Jacques LeMoine

Vidal, J. E. and J. Lemoine (1970). Contribution a l’ethnobotanique des Hmong du Laos. Journal d’
Argiculture tropicale et de Botanique appliquee 17:1

(1972). Un village Hmong Vert du haut Laos. Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

(1972). L’initiation du mort chez les Hmong. I. Le Chemin, II. Les themes, III. Les themes. L’homme XII(1):
105-134, XII(2):85-125, XII(3):84-110.

(1972). Les ecritures du Hmong. Bulletin des Amis du Royaume Lao, Vientiane 7-8: 123-165.

Thomas Lyman

Lyman, Thomas A. (1962). The Mong Njua: A Meo (Miao) Tribe of Northern Thailand. Notes on general
characteristics. (unpublished)

Lyman, Thomas A. (1962). The Weaving Technique of the Green Miao. Ethnos 27:35-39.

Lyman, Thomas A. (1968). Green Miao (Meo) Spirit-Ceremonies. Ethnologica (n.f.) 4:1-28.

Lyman, Thomas A. (1969). Miao (Meo) Slash-and-Burn Agriculture. Journal d’Agriculture tropicale et de
Botanique appliguee 16(6,7,8)251-283.

Lyman, T.A. The Particle ‘le’ in Green Miao. Asia Aakhanee: Southeast Asian Survey 1(1): 1-14.

Lyman, T.A. (1969). Green Miao (Meo) Proverbs. Asia Aakhanee: Southeast Asian Survey 192): 30-32.

Deaton, Brady, and Thomas A. Lyman (1969). Types of Miao Hill-Rice. Asia Aakhanee: Southeast
Asian Survey 1(2):36-38.

Deaton, Brady, and Thomas A. Lyman (1969). Green Miao (Meo) Agricultural Terms. Asia Aakhanee:
Southeast Asian Survey 1(3):42-47.

Lyman, Thomas A. (1970). The “Mong” of Thailand vs. The “Hmong” of Laos, A Preliminary Research
Sketch. Asia Aakhanee: Southeast Asian Survey 2(3):26-28, March 1970.

Lyman, Thomas A. (1970). The Meo Tribesmen, A New Force in Laos in Laos. Asia Aakhanee:
Southeast Asian Survey 2(3):26-28, March 1970.

Lyman, Thomas A. (1975). Ethnological Journey: An account of Travels in Northern Thailand in Quest of
the Miao (Meo) Tribe. Napa, CA: Graphics Department, Napa College.

Lyman, T.A. (1976). Dictionary of Mong Njua, A Miao (Meo) Language of Southeast Asia. The Hague:
Mouton.

Lyman, Thomas A. (1976). Ethno-Zoology of the Green Miao (Mong Njua) of Naan Province, Northern
Thailand. Napa, CA: Graphics Department, Napa College.

Lyman, Thomas A. (1978). Note on the Name “Green Miao.” Nachrichten 123:82-87.

Lyman, T.A. (1979). Grammar of Mong Njua (Green Miao): A Descriptive Linguistic Study. Published by
the Author. William Geddes

(1970). Opium and the Miao: A Study in Ecological Adjustment. Oceania 41(1):1-11.

(1976). Migrants of the Mountains: The Cultural Ecology of the Blue Miao (Hmong Njua) of Thailand.
Oxford: Clarendon Press.